Prof. Oladapo Ashiru
The science of getting pregnant and having healthy babies is such a complex process that those who get pregnant and bear live healthy babies with ease are indeed lucky.
Being in good health, with balanced and synchronised hormones, minerals and vitamins, organs, and systems, is essential to achieving pregnancy, carrying the pregnancy to term, and giving birth to live and normal babies.
Obese women experience impaired fertility in both natural and assisted conception cycles. A person is obese if their BMI (Body Mass Index) exceeds or exceeds thirty kilograms per meter (kg/m2 ). There are degrees of obesity: class 1 (30.0–34.9 kg/m2), class 2 (35.0–39.9 kg/m2) and class 3 (more than or equal to 40 kg/m2). The likelihood of pregnancy declines with increasing BMI. Some countries deny fertility treatment to obese persons.
Several studies indicate that women with anovulatory cycles, i.e., irregular cycles greater than thirty-six days and hirsutism (male-like hair growth), were more than 30 pounds (13.6 kg) heavier than women with no menstrual abnormalities after adjusting for height and age.
The study also concluded that the more overweight or obese a woman is, the more likely she would have anovulatory cycles. A longer duration of obesity was associated with facial hair. Another analysis found that teenage obesity was more significant for never-pregnant married women than for previously pregnant married women and women having ovarian surgery for polycystic ovaries than for women having ovarian surgery for other reasons. It supports an association of obesity with anovulatory cycles.
In 2015 studies were presented by members of the WHO convention for setting guidelines for infertility treatments to confirm that a high BMI increases the risk of complications in pregnancy. Regardless of their method of conception, overweight or obese women have an increased risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, miscarriage, stillbirth, premature babies, and perinatal death. They also have a slight increase in the risk of congenital fetal anomalies.
Obesity in women can also increase the risk of miscarriages and reduce the success of assisted reproductive technologies. Obese couples are likely to have insulin in excess and be insulin resistant. These factors are the root cause of their reduced fertility and decrease in the success of their having a live, healthy baby. These adverse effects of obesity are specifically evident in polycystic ovary syndrome, a significant cause of infertility.
In men, obesity is associated with low testosterone levels. In massively obese men, reduced spermatogenesis (formation of sperms) associated with severely low testosterone levels may favour infertility. Moreover, the frequency of erectile dysfunction increases with increasing body mass index.
Obese women suffer disturbances to the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis (which is very important for reproductive function). Women suffering from menstrual cycle disturbances are up to three times more likely to suffer reduced numbers of or absent ovulatory cycles. Their periods may stop or even have their periods but fail to ovulate. That is, they will not produce any eggs. It can affect the embryo’s implantation so that even when fertilisation does occur, attachment of the embryo to the womb is a problem. There are more significant dangers of abnormalities in fetal growth and development. Pregnant women are also more likely to have fat babies with difficulties regulating their blood glucose at birth, so they always need to be admitted into the neonatal intensive care unit, among other possible risks they are exposed to.
Obesity also impairs the response of women to assisted conception treatments. A WHO meeting on guidelines for infertility and in-vitro fertilisation treatments was held in Geneva in 2015. We recommended weight loss through lifestyle modification and other available means for couples. They include exercise, health spa treatments, and weight loss centers to lose at least 5 percent of body weight as the first management line for obese infertile
individuals. It has been demonstrated to restore regular menstrual cycles and ovulation and improve the likelihood of conception. We recommend using Modern Mayr therapy at the Mart Life detox clinic utilising a battery of tools for detoxification, weight loss, heavy metal chelation, and removal of environmental toxins. Also, thorough lifestyle modification, individualized diet, and overall care for the body systems are highly effective treatments for achieving weight loss speedily and healthily. As a rule, couples planning conception must undergo whole-body detoxification weeks before the attempt.
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